Relating 1D Compressibility of Kaolin Clay with S-Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity: An Instrumented Consolidometer Study

Mohammed Mansoor Mofreh Gubran and Chee-Ming Chan


Objective - Non-Invasive and minimally invasive testing techniques for geotechnical engineering purposes, nowadays, are developing progressively. Nonetheless, due to the particulate nature of soil, there exists a transitional zone where the conventional testing (macro-level) is studied simultaneously in micro-level using non-destructive techniques. The incorporation of the conventional testing in parallel with non-destructive testing is to establish the correlation between well-known testing program under controlled conditions with innovative techniques. For this purpose, the current paper as part of an ongoing research the current paper presents the one-dimensional consolidation characteristics of kaolin in cement-treated condition with concurrent bender element and electrical conductivity (EC) measurement in an instrumented consolidometer.

Methodology/Technique - Kaolin slurry at twice liquid limit was mixed with 5 % cement cured for 7 days which undergoes 2.5 to 1000 kPa vertical Stress. Shear wave velocity Vs was measured to quantify the small-strain stiffness of soil using bender element transducers triggered by GDS bender element master signal conditioning unit in a frequency range 1-100 kHz. Electrical conductivity and temperature was measured using HANNA commercial probe. The shear wave velocity was analysed using the conventional techniques (visual picking).

Findings - Results indicate that the Vs increases with applied stress whereas the EC decreases.

Novelty - S-wave and EC have strong relationship with the compressibility behaviour of cemented kaolin clay.

Type of Paper: Review

Keywords: Kaolin; Shear Wave Velocity; Electrical Conductivity; Consolidation, Instrumented Consolidometer; Cement-Treated Kaolin


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